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References for calculators:
Leibniz’s calculating machine, Leibniz wheel; 2. Circular calculator, Curta calculator

References for coding:
Programmable loom, Difference engine, Tabulating machine

References for computer generations:
The 0th-generation computer (switches & relays, IBM’s ASCC)
The 1st-generation computer (vacuum tubes, Turing machine, 5 kHz, ENIAC)
The 2nd-generation computer (transistors, 58 kHz, IBM 604 – developed in 1948)
The 3rd-generation computer (integrated circuit (IC), IBM System/360 – announced in 1964)
The 4th-generation computer (VLSI, Intel 4004 – anounced in 1971, Intel 8008 – announced in 1972)
The 5th-generation computer (?)

References for computer types:
Types of computer, Analog computer (E6B flight computer), Digital computer (unit – TTL), Microcomputer

References for ICs (chips) based on TTL:
Motorola 74LS83, 74LS04


passive components: resistors (R), inductors (L), capacitors (C)

active components: diodes, transistors, field-effect transistors (FETs), metal-oxide field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), integrated circuits (ICs, composed of many transistors (FETs) and RLCs, also designated as chips)