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1. Machine language: 8086 instruction set, machine code 8086.
2. Operational systems (OSs): UNIX, disk operating system (DOS), Apple iOS, Windows, LINUX, Windows Phone, PalmOS, Symbian OS, BlackBerry OS, Android.
3. Managements provided by OS.
4. Types of OS
5. Example of OS – MS DOS.
6. Conversion between binary numbers and characters – ASCII codes.
7. Storage – file systems.
8. Editing software – pspad, notepad++, hexedit.
9. Emulator – DOS box.